The Big Bang, Black Holes and Other Universes: And What was There Before the Big Bang?
Dr George Christos
25 May 2017
watch a little youtube video produced by Rebecca Ronita HERE.
Once we concede that our
universe started from a point in what has come to be known as the Big
Bang, it immediately raises the question of whether other universes
exist which lie outside of our own space-time, also essentially
starting from a point. If there were multiple universes, could a
mathematics be set up to by which the different universes can influence
each other gravitationally, perhaps through another dimension. If there
were many other universes outside of our own universe that exerted a
gravitational pull inside our own universe, there may be no need for so
called dark energy (which is suggested to make up some 68% of our
universe), which is required to explain why our universe is not only
continuing to expand but is actually increasing it's rate of expansion.
This also suggests that our universe is infinite, so how could it all
have started from a point in the big bang theory?
Another puzzling question is
what is going on inside a black hole? They were predicted by Einstein's
theory of general relativity and have been observed everywhere in our
universe or cosmos, with possibly at least one black hole at the centre
of every one of 200 billion to 2 trillion galaxies, or more. That is a
lot of black holes. What are black holes? They are collapsed massive
stars that have collapsed to a point. They are represented in
Einstein's theory as a singularity in space-time, or points where the
gravitational well is infinitely deep so to speak, that nothing can
escape. But these are just points in space time with a lot of matter
inside of them at theoretically infinite density. As soon as we
think of this weird concept of a large amount of matter at a point is
stirs up the same thoughts of astonishment when we are told that when
our big bang began all matter was at a single point in space time.
Before the big bang, our space-time was so curved (infinitely) that it
only existed inside that point. Our space-time only started to
develop once the big bang explosion took place and matter started
flying out allowing space-time to form and expand. Why did this
explosion even happen?
The question raised here is, is
it possible that the inside of a black hole is potentially just another
universe whose own space-time may be developing inside of it (of which
we have no knowledge), or will it possibly explode into our own
space-time universe (or another universe). Could this have happened
already somewhere in our own universe? What would be the
characteristics of such an event? If it has not happened yet, then,
what would be the consequences of such a thing happening?
The question I am asking is, can a
black hole get so big that it explodes. Are we inside a much bigger
universe? This notion of
universes within universes can of course go on ad infinitum,
theoretically at least. If we were to suddenly appear within our
greater outer cosmos, what would be the tell-tale signs of this? If we
are in an exploding black hole, already inside of
another universe, it may explain why distant galaxies are moving
away from each other at a faster rate, because they are being
pulled out by the matter that already exists outside of our universe. There
would be no need for so called dark energy (68%), and it would explain
why our universe consists mainly of matter with very little
anti-matter. If we came from an exploding balck hole, there is no need
for a starting point, a t =0 (t being time). Having a t=0 seems to me
like having a God. What was there before then big bang?
ps. I wrote to Stephen Hawking today (
26 May 2017) to
ask if a black hole can explode, when it becomes too massive. I hope he
replies. He died in 2018 with no reply. RIP Stephen Hawking.
Another possibility is that we are actually inside a black hole, with dimensions
not visible from outside the black hole. That would explain inflation,
but if we are inside a black hole (inside its horizon) then light would
be moving in one direction for us, towards the singuarity point, so
this is not really a feasible option.
black holes and big bangs in this way, connects the two singuarities of
Einstein's theory of general relativity, and resolves the
question of multiverses, without proposing they exist in an ad
hoc manner. They (as we are)
are buried inside of each other, in both directions.
Also, a black hole may
have already exploded in our own universe, and we just have not
seen it yet, as remember information cannot travel faster than the
speed of light. When we see something 13.4 billion light years away, it
has already moved on another 13 billion light years.
Our universe is not special. It
is one of many in a bigger universe, which is also one of many in even bigger
universes, ad infinitum.
we were an exploding black hole, it would explain why our universe
consists predominently of matter, as opposed to anti-matter. We
exploded from a black hole made predominently of matter. There may
well be anti-matter universes and black holes out there somewhere. I
guess they might even balance out in some way. This was another
sticking point I always had with
the big bang theory. If we started from a quantum fluctuation, would we
not have have started with an equal amount of matter and anti-matter?
This type of multiverse linking black holes, singularities,
mass, and big bangs, also resolves the conflict between general
relativity and quantum mechanics, which asserts information cannot be
lost. It is known that information lost into a black hole is storted on
its surface (like a hologram) and there is a direct relationship
between entropy and the surface area of a black hole's horizon. But all
of this is lost if Stephen Hawking is right that eventually a black
hole dies, because of so-called Hawking radiation. That dilemma is
resolved if a black hole explodes before this happens.
besides, wouldn't Fermi's Exclusion principle stop all the
(half integal spin particles) from being in the same state. Could this
be what causes the explosion? The release of the energy binding the
protons and neutrons could also explain why the big bang is so hot when
the black hole explodes.
after some consideration of all of these matter I have put my ideas
together for Rebecca Ronita who has produced a youtube video for me.
Thanks Rebecca. It can be viewed HERE. It is open for discussion in that forum or any other forum.
The script of the youtube video (written and edited by me) is as follows:
Most scientists believe in the Big Bang
Theory, that our universe started with an explosion from a point.
There is some empirical evidence for this, such as the 3 degree
Kelvin background microwave radiation.
But there are a number of problems with
the Big Bang Theory and the Universe as we see it.
The first problem with the Big Bang
Theory is that it requires a starting point t=0 (t being time).
Having a starting point is like having a God. What was there before
the big bang?
The other problem with the Universe -
with our Universe as we see it - is it consists mainly of matter,
whereas for every particle there is an anti-particle; for example the
antiparticle of a proton is an anti-proton, for an electron it is a
positron, and so on. Why does our Universe consist mostly of matter
only, especially if it started from a so-called quantum fluctuation--
there should be equal amounts of matter and anti-matter?
The main problem with trying to explain
our universe is the fact that its expansion rate seems to be
increasing. Instead of slowing down, which it should be
doing--because the galaxies would eventually start pulling on each
other gravitationally, slowing down the rate of expansion. Instead of
slowing down, the expansion rate of our universe is increasing. To
get around this, scientists have postulated that the universe
consists of 68% of dark energy, 27% of dark matter, and only 5% of
matter. The 5% is what we see, or can see. Dark energy is postulated
simply to try to explain this fact. It is hypothetical. No one has
observed it. It is an ether. It is like a fifth force; like an
anti-gravitational force, which is pushing the galaxies further and
further apart instead of allowing the gravitational pull to actually
pull them back in towards each other.
Dr George Christos, a theoretical
particle physicist has come up with some ideas of how we might be
able to get around the need for dark energy.
He has put forward the idea that maybe
our universe is just an exploding black hole which existed in our
As particles get pulled into a black
hole they run out of quantum states to all be able to stay in there.
There are 2 types of particles: fermions (particles of half integral
spin), like the proton, neutron, and electron, and bosons (particles
of integral spin), like the photon. Most particles are actually
fermions, other than the photon and the other gauge particles, like
the gluon. Most of the matter consists of fermions and inside a black
hole most are probably just quarks and electrons.
Fermions have the special property that
they cannot be in the same quantum state. This is the so-called
Fermi-exclusion principle which prevents two fermions from being in
the same quantum state at the same time. The fermi-exclusion
principle is essentially a 'force' of infinite magnitude. Fermions
cannot be in the same state.---It just cannot happen.
Dr Christos has suggests that a black
hole may have become so big that it just could not accommodate all
the fermions and then simply exploded! This is our big bang. This is
interesting because it also connects the two singularities of general
relativity---the big bang and black holes.
Furthermore, if our universe is an
exploding black hole, then this would explain why there is no need
for a starting point, a t=0. It was all there before. We (our
universe) pre-existed within a bigger universe. And that universe
could have been an exploding black hole in an even bigger universe,
And if our universe is an exploding
black hole and exists within a much larger universe then this would
explain inflation without the need for dark energy. The increasing
rate of expansion of our universe, as we see it, is because there is
a lot of matter outside of our observable universe which is pulling
it outwards by gravity alone. There is no need for a fifth
hypothetical anti-gravitational force.
Another idea that Dr Christos has put
forward is that maybe our Universe or space-time is just a small
bubble within a much bigger space-time - So big that we cannot even
fathom it. And this bigger space-time consists of lots of other
universes, which all act upon each other gravitationally causing them
to all inflate, with no need for the hypothetical dark energy.
With respect to the last point made in the video above, I am
assuming that our universe is not special and that there may be many
other universes out there. Assuming Einstein's theory of general
relativity applies to any other universe. So imagine our universe
started from a big bang but there are lots of universes out there too,
in a space-time that is so big that we cannot even fathom it yet. Our
iniverse is expanding close to the speed of light so how would we have
an inkling of what is going on outside of our own little
universe. If these universes could interact with one another
gravitationally this may also eliminate the need for dark energy. The
only way I can think of haow to do this at present is to suggest that
we are part of a much bigger space time. Read this.
we are exploding out at near the speed of light from big bang, we have
barely moved in the bigger (X,Y,Z,T) space-time, where other universes
exist and affect each other, causing inflation within each other.
Two universes will collide one day.