The Big Bang, Black Holes and Other Universes: And What was There Before the Big Bang?
Dr George Christos
25 May 2017

watch a little youtube video produced by Rebecca Ronita HERE.

Once we concede that our universe started from a point in what has come to be known as the Big Bang, it immediately raises the question of whether other universes exist which lie outside of our own space-time, also essentially starting from a point. If there were multiple universes, could a mathematics be set up to by which the different universes can influence each other gravitationally, perhaps through another dimension. If there were many other universes outside of our own universe that exerted a gravitational pull inside our own universe, there may be no need for so called dark energy (which is suggested to make up some 68% of our universe), which is required to explain why our universe is not only continuing to expand but is actually increasing it's rate of expansion. This also suggests that our universe is infinite, so how could it all have started from a point in the big bang theory?

Another puzzling question is what is going on inside a black hole? They were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and have been observed everywhere in our universe or cosmos, with possibly at least one black hole at the centre of every one of 200 billion to 2 trillion galaxies, or more. That is a lot of black holes. What are black holes? They are collapsed massive stars that have collapsed to a point. They are represented in Einstein's theory as a singularity in space-time, or points where the gravitational well is infinitely deep so to speak, that nothing can escape. But these are just points in space time with a lot of matter inside of them at theoretically infinite density.  As soon as we think of this weird concept of a large amount of matter at a point is stirs up the same thoughts of astonishment when we are told that when our big bang began all matter was at a single point in space time. Before the big bang, our space-time was so curved (infinitely) that it only existed inside that point. Our space-time only started  to develop once the big bang explosion took place and matter started flying out allowing space-time to form and expand. Why did this explosion even happen?

The question raised here is, is it possible that the inside of a black hole is potentially just another universe whose own space-time may be developing inside of it (of which we have no knowledge), or will it possibly explode into our own space-time universe (or another universe). Could this have happened already somewhere in our own universe? What would be the characteristics of such an event? If it has not happened yet, then, what would be the consequences of such a thing happening?

The question I am asking is, can a black hole get so big that it explodes. Are we inside a much bigger universe?  This notion of universes within universes can of course go on ad infinitum, theoretically at least. If we were to suddenly appear within our greater outer cosmos, what would be the tell-tale signs of this? If we are in an exploding black hole, already inside of another universe, it may explain why distant galaxies are moving further away from each other at a faster rate, because they are being pulled out by the matter that already exists outside of our universe. There would be no need for so called dark energy (68%), and it would explain why our universe consists mainly of matter with very little anti-matter. If we came from an exploding balck hole, there is no need for a starting point, a t =0 (t being time). Having a t=0 seems to me like having a God. What was there before then big bang?

ps. I wrote to Stephen Hawking today (
26 May 2017) to ask if a black hole can explode, when it becomes too massive. I hope he replies. He died in 2018 with no reply. RIP Stephen Hawking.

Another possibility is that we are actually inside a black hole, with dimensions not visible from outside the black hole. That would explain inflation, but if we are inside a black hole (inside its horizon) then light would be moving in one direction for us, towards the singuarity point, so this is not really a feasible option.

Connecting black holes and big bangs in this way, connects the two singuarities of Einstein's theory of general relativity, and resolves the question of multiverses, without proposing they exist in an ad hoc manner. They (as we are) are buried inside of each other, in both directions.

Also, a black hole may have already exploded in our own universe, and we just have not seen it yet, as remember information cannot travel faster than the speed of light. When we see something 13.4 billion light years away, it has already moved on another 13 billion light years.

Our universe
is not special. It is one of many in a bigger universe, which is also one of many in even bigger universes,  ad infinitum.

If we were an exploding black hole, it would explain why our universe consists predominently of matter, as opposed to anti-matter. We exploded from a black hole made predominently of matter. There may well be anti-matter universes and black holes out there somewhere. I guess they might even balance out in some way.  This was another sticking point I always had with the big bang theory. If we started from a quantum fluctuation, would we not have have started with an equal amount of matter and anti-matter?

This type of multiverse linking black holes, singularities, mass, and big bangs, also resolves the conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics, which asserts information cannot be lost. It is known that information lost into a black hole is storted on its surface (like a hologram) and there is a direct relationship between entropy and the surface area of a black hole's horizon. But all of this is lost if Stephen Hawking is right that eventually a black hole dies, because of so-called Hawking radiation. That dilemma is resolved if a black hole explodes before this happens. 

And besides, wouldn't Fermi's Exclusion principle stop all the fermions (half integal spin particles) from being in the same state. Could this be what causes the explosion? The release of the energy binding the protons and neutrons could also explain why the big bang is so hot when the black hole explodes.

Ok, after some consideration of all of these matter I have put my ideas together for Rebecca Ronita who has produced a youtube video for me. Thanks Rebecca. It can be viewed HERE. It is open for discussion in that forum or any other forum. 

The script of the youtube video (written and edited by me) is as follows:

Most scientists believe in the Big Bang Theory, that our universe started with an explosion from a point. There is some empirical evidence for this, such as the 3 degree Kelvin background microwave radiation.

But there are a number of problems with the Big Bang Theory and the Universe as we see it.

The first problem with the Big Bang Theory is that it requires a starting point t=0 (t being time). Having a starting point is like having a God. What was there before the big bang?

The other problem with the Universe - with our Universe as we see it - is it consists mainly of matter, whereas for every particle there is an anti-particle; for example the antiparticle of a proton is an anti-proton, for an electron it is a positron, and so on. Why does our Universe consist mostly of matter only, especially if it started from a so-called quantum fluctuation-- there should be equal amounts of matter and anti-matter?

The main problem with trying to explain our universe is the fact that its expansion rate seems to be increasing. Instead of slowing down, which it should be doing--because the galaxies would eventually start pulling on each other gravitationally, slowing down the rate of expansion. Instead of slowing down, the expansion rate of our universe is increasing. To get around this, scientists have postulated that the universe consists of 68% of dark energy, 27% of dark matter, and only 5% of matter. The 5% is what we see, or can see. Dark energy is postulated simply to try to explain this fact. It is hypothetical. No one has observed it. It is an ether. It is like a fifth force; like an anti-gravitational force, which is pushing the galaxies further and further apart instead of allowing the gravitational pull to actually pull them back in towards each other.

Dr George Christos, a theoretical particle physicist has come up with some ideas of how we might be able to get around the need for dark energy.

He has put forward the idea that maybe our universe is just an exploding black hole which existed in our pre-existing universe.

As particles get pulled into a black hole they run out of quantum states to all be able to stay in there. There are 2 types of particles: fermions (particles of half integral spin), like the proton, neutron, and electron, and bosons (particles of integral spin), like the photon. Most particles are actually fermions, other than the photon and the other gauge particles, like the gluon. Most of the matter consists of fermions and inside a black hole most are probably just quarks and electrons.

Fermions have the special property that they cannot be in the same quantum state. This is the so-called Fermi-exclusion principle which prevents two fermions from being in the same quantum state at the same time. The fermi-exclusion principle is essentially a 'force' of infinite magnitude. Fermions cannot be in the same state.---It just cannot happen.

Dr Christos has suggests that a black hole may have become so big that it just could not accommodate all the fermions and then simply exploded! This is our big bang. This is interesting because it also connects the two singularities of general relativity---the big bang and black holes.

Furthermore, if our universe is an exploding black hole, then this would explain why there is no need for a starting point, a t=0. It was all there before. We (our universe) pre-existed within a bigger universe. And that universe could have been an exploding black hole in an even bigger universe, ad infinitum.

And if our universe is an exploding black hole and exists within a much larger universe then this would explain inflation without the need for dark energy. The increasing rate of expansion of our universe, as we see it, is because there is a lot of matter outside of our observable universe which is pulling it outwards by gravity alone. There is no need for a fifth hypothetical anti-gravitational force.

Another idea that Dr Christos has put forward is that maybe our Universe or space-time is just a small bubble within a much bigger space-time - So big that we cannot even fathom it. And this bigger space-time consists of lots of other universes, which all act upon each other gravitationally causing them to all inflate, with no need for the hypothetical dark energy.

With respect to the last point made in the video above, I am assuming that our universe is not special and that there may be many other universes out there. Assuming Einstein's theory of general relativity applies to any other universe. So imagine our universe started from a big bang but there are lots of universes out there too, in a space-time that is so big that we cannot even fathom it yet. Our iniverse is expanding close to the speed of light so how would we have an inkling of what is going on outside of our own little universe. If these universes could interact with one another gravitationally this may also eliminate the need for dark energy. The only way I can think of haow to do this at present is to suggest that we are part of a much bigger space time. Read this.
Although we are exploding out at near the speed of light from big bang, we have barely moved in the bigger (X,Y,Z,T) space-time, where other universes exist and affect each other, causing inflation within each other.
Two universes will collide one day.